An Efficient Digital Watermarking Technique for Color Images Using Directional Transforms

  • Nguyen Chi Sy The Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VNU-HCM, Vietnam
  • Ha Hoang Kha The Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VNU-HCM, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Minh Hoang The Faculty of Management Information Systems, Banking University of HCM City, Vietnam


This paper is concerned with a digital watermarking technique for color images based on directional transforms. Different from the traditional watermarking schemes which embed the watermarks into the spatial domain or frequency domain of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), this paper investigates the performance of the watermarking schemes using the Fast Discrete Curvelet Transforms (FDCT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). We evaluate the performance of the watermarking schemes using the directional transforms on a standard database of color images in terms of invisibility and robustness. The performance metrics are measured by Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Correlation (NC), Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) and required time for extracting and embedding process. The experimental results reveal that watermarking schemes in the directional transform domains outperform the other schemes in DWT domains.


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How to Cite
SY, Nguyen Chi; KHA, Ha Hoang; HOANG, Nguyen Minh. An Efficient Digital Watermarking Technique for Color Images Using Directional Transforms. Journal of Science and Technology: Issue on Information and Communications Technology, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 1-10, dec. 2017. ISSN 1859-1531. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 mar. 2023. doi: