Operating Performance of Power Systems Integrated HVDC Solution: KonTum-GiaLai Transmission System Case Considering Penetration of Renewable Energy
The increasing demand for electricity along with the development of distributed generators showed that improving transmission efficiency and reliability is an indispensable requirement in the operation of the power system. Advanced technologies need to be applied to modern power systems for purposes of conveying large power flows, mitigating the risk of faults. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is now considered an effective solution for investment in large-length power lines, replacing the conventional high-voltage alternative current (HVAC) transmission system, especially in period of increasing generation capacity due to the penetration of renewable energy sources. This study assesses the performance of the HVDC system on an actual power grid based on planning and improvement demands. The calculation results of power flows, power losses and short-circuit faults were investigated using ETAP software
 N. J. Beaumont and R. Tinch, “Abatement cost curves: a viable management tool for enabling the achievement of win–win waste reduction strategies?” Journal of environmental management, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 2004.
 T. Brown, D. Schlachtberger, A. Kies, S. Schramm, and M. Greiner, “Synergies of sector coupling and transmission reinforcement in a cost-optimised, highly renewable european energy system,” Energy, vol. 160, pp. 720–739, 2018.
 R. Wilson, B. Biewald, and S. E. Economics, Best practices in electric utility integrated resource planning: Examples of state regulations and recent utility plans. Regulatory Assistance Project, 2013.
 A. Solomon, D. M. Kammen, and D. Callaway, “The role of large-scale energy storage design and dispatch in the power grid: a study of very high grid penetration of variable renewable resources,” Applied Energy, vol. 134, pp. 75–89, 2014.
 M. Islam, S. Mekhilef, and R. Saidur, “Progress and recent trends of wind energy technology,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 21, pp. 456–468, 2013.
 IRENA, “Planning for the renewable future: Long-term modelling and tools to expand variable renewable power in emerging economies,” 2017.
 T. T. Nguyen, B. H. Dinh, N. V. Quynh, M. Q. Duong, L. V. Dai et al., “A novel algorithm for optimal operation of hydrothermal power systems under considering the constraints in transmission networks,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 188, 2018.
 A. Pirisi, M. Mussetta, G. Gruosso, and R. E. Zich, “Optimization of a linear generator for sea-wave energy conversion by means of a hybrid evolutionary algorithm,” in IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–6.
 H. Lund, “Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of pv, wind and wave power into the electricity supply,”Renewable energy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 503–515, 2006.
 K. Mbangula, I. Davidson, and R. Tiako, “Improving power system stability of south africa’s hvac network using strategic placement of hvdc links,” CIGRE Science & Engineering Journal (CSE), vol. 5, pp. 71–78, 2016.
 H. Jingbo, L. Mingjie, Y. Jun, C. Qing, X. Tao, and Y. Zhao, “Research on dynamic characteristics and countermeasures of ac-dc hybrid power system with large scale hvdc transmission,”in 2014 International Conference on Power System Technology. IEEE, 2014, pp. 799–805.
 O. E. Oni, I. E. Davidson, and K. N. Mbangula, “A review of lcc-hvdc and vsc-hvdc technologies and applications,” in 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC). IEEE, 2016, pp. 1–7.
 K. Meah and S. Ula, “Comparative evaluation of hvdc and hvac transmission systems,” in 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1–5.
 D. T. Viet, V. Van Phuong, M. Q. Duong, M. P. Khanh, A. Kies, and B. Schyska, “A cost-optimal pathway to integrate renewable energy into the future vietnamese power system,”in 2018 4th International Conference on Green Technology and Sustainable Development (GTSD). IEEE, 2018, pp. 144–149.
 B. Nguyen, V. Nguyen, M. Duong, K. Le, H. Nguyen, and A. Doan, “Propose a mppt algorithm based on thevenin equivalent circuit for improving photovoltaic system operation. front,” Energy Res, vol. 8, p. 14, 2020.
 M. Jafar and M. Molinas, “A transformerless series reactive/ harmonic compensator for line-commutated hvdc for grid integration of offshore wind power,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2410–2419, 2012.
 T. N. Tran, L. Luo, J. Xu, S. Dong, Z. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and M. Nguyen, “Analysis of the characteristics of the new
converter transformer based on the matrix model,” IEEE transactions on power delivery, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 821–830, 2012.
 X. Li, H. Li, Y. Liu, and F. Lin, “Insulation coordination of arcing horns on hvdc electrode lines: Protection performance evaluation, influence factors and improvement method,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 430, 2018.
 S. Shah, R. Hassan, and J. Sun, “Hvdc transmission system architectures and control-a review,” in 2013 IEEE 14th workshop on control and modeling for power electronics (COMPEL). IEEE, 2013, pp. 1–8.
 N. Flourentzou, V. G. Agelidis, and G. D. Demetriades, “Vscbased hvdc power transmission systems: An overview,” IEEE Transactions on power electronics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 592–602, 2009.